The science behind Artificial Intelligence


What is called machine learning is also artificial intelligence easily demonstrated by machines, especially in contrast to the natural intelligence. The research is about “intelligent agents” that has perception about environment and can successfully achieve the goals. When a machine does “cognitive” actions like those by humans, it is Artificial Intelligence.
The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, most actions considered as requiring “intelligence” are often removed from the definition. AI is whatever hasn’t been done yet like optical character recognition which is frequently excluded from “artificial intelligence”, as it has become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, and intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.
Classifying artificial intelligence into three different types of AI systems: analytical, human-inspired, and humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence generating cognitive representation of the world and using learning based on past experience to inform future decisions. Human-inspired AI has elements from cognitive as well as emotional intelligence, understanding, in addition to cognitive elements, human emotions and considering them in their decision making. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and social intelligence), able to be self-conscious and self-aware in interactions with others.
For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. “robotics” or “machine learning”), the use of particular tools (“logic” or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences.
The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is among the field’s long-term goals. including statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.
Human intelligence “can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it” raising philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings which are issues that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since ageless time. AI considered being a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Unlike previous technological revolutions, it will create a risk of mass unemployment.
In the twenty-first century, AI techniques experience a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have become essential to the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research.

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